सुक्ष्म जीवहरु माटोका अभिन्न अंग हुन् जुन स्वस्थ माटोमा असंख्य संख्यामा रहेका हुन्छन । एक जना प्रख्यात सुक्ष्म जीव विज्ञ Jacob Lipman ले भनेका छन “सुक्ष्म जीवहरु बिनाको माटो मृत माटो हो” । उर्भर माटोमा बिभिन्न किसिमका सुक्ष्म जीवहरु रहेका हुन्छन जस्तै ब्याक्टेरिया, ढुसी, प्रोटोजोवा, भाइरस, अल्गी आदि । सामान्यतया सुक्ष्म जीव भन्ना साथ हामी विभिन्न रोग लगाउने जीवाणुहरु सोच्न पुग्छौ तर वास्तवमा ति जीवाणुहरुको तुलनामा माटोमा असंख्य संख्यामा लाभदायक सुक्ष्म जीवहरु रहेका हुन्छन तिनीहरुले माटोलाइ सुन्तलित राख्न मद्धत गर्छन । यिनीहरु विरुवाहरुको जराको सेरोफेरोमा बढी मात्रामा केन्द्रित रहन्छन जहाँ यिनीहरुको खाना प्रशस्त मात्रामा उपलब्ध हुन्छ । सुक्ष्म जीवको भूमिकालाइ छोटकरीमा तल प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । Continue reading
Nitrogen, a macro and primary nutrient element is limiting nutrient in most of the soil. Its proper management requires the knowledge of several factors which reduces its availability in soil. In Nepal Urea is the main source of fertilizer used to supply N to the crop. Urea contains 46 percent of N, and it is present in amide form. Chemically it is in organic form because of its carbon content (NH2 CO NH2), but it is considered inorganic or chemical fertilizer because it is not derived from organs. Continue reading
Tuta absoluta is a species of moth in family Gelechiidae known by the common names tomato leafminer and South American tomato moth. This pest has been classified as the most serious threat for tomato production worldwide. The pest has spread from South America to several parts of Europe, entire Africa and has now spread to Nepal and India.
Feeding the ever increasing population is not an easy task as we commonly think. Population growth, urbanization, loss of fertile lands, desertification, climate change etc are continuously forcing towards poor agricultural production and food insecurity. Agriculture is an important sector of Nepal with the majority of the rural population depending on it. Its importance in Nepal can be noted from 35 percent of its contribution in GDP and 65 percent of population dependent upon it. The sector faces major challenges of enhancing production in a situation of dwindling natural resources necessary for production. The growing demand for agricultural products, however, also offers opportunities for producers to sustain and improve their livelihoods. The agricultural sector is confronted with the major challenge of increasing production to feed a growing and increasingly prosperous population in a situation of decreasing availability of natural resources. New approaches and technical innovations are required to cope with these challenges and to enhance the livelihoods of the rural population. Continue reading
Food security can be defined with many definitions but the core concept is same. It can be defined as “Secure, adequate and suitable supply of food for everyone.” While United Nations Food Summit 1996 defined it as, Food security exists when all people, at all times have physical or economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Food security exists only when there is balance on all the four pillars of it. Food availability, food accessibility situation, food utilization/distribution and stability are considered as the four pillars of food security. Food availability is the first and utmost pillar of food security. Continue reading